An excerpt of Teaching Machines is in The MIT Press Reader: "The Engineered Student: On B. F. Skinner’s Teaching Machine."

"The story of teaching machines is deeply intertwined with Skinner’s psycho-technologies, which laid a foundation from which education technology has never entirely broken."

Audrey Watters


Teaching Machines: The History of Personalized Learning

Audrey Watters, (MIT Press 2021)

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